A 10-L/min pilot plant using California State Water Project water was designed and operated to remove bromide by electrolytic volatilization. The objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and efficacy of this process in reducing the formation of brominated disinfection by-products such as bromate, trihalomethanes (THMs), and haloacetic acids. Water was passed between electrodes to oxidize bromide to bromine, which was volatilized and partially removed. The water was then ozonated, clarified in an upflow sand clarifier, and filtered through a monomedium deep-bed anthracite coal filter. The process resulted in significantly lower bromate concentrations. THM concentrations were lower in some situations but to a lesser extent, relative to bromate. Chloride removal was also achieved. Extrapolations from pilot-test results put estimated costs for a demonstration-scale electrolytic reactor at $1,529-2,099/mil gal ($405-555/ML) of water treated.
Pilot-testing of Electrolysis for Bromide Removal from Drinking Water
Journal of the American Water Works Association ,
Kimbrough, D.,L. Boulos, S. Surawanvijit, A. Zacheis, and Y. Cohen. 2013. "Pilot-testing of Electrolysis for Bromide Removal from Drinking Water."Journal of the American Water Works Association. Volume 105, Number 6, pp.E299-E309.